NYSORA Compendium of Regional Anesthesia

NYSORA’s worldwide GOLD-standard, practical, and comprehensive COMPENDIUM of Regional Anesthesia and acute pain. Loaded with NYSORA’s best Illustrations, animations, clinical videos of procedures, and more. Enhanced by the PocketEDU e-Learning platform where readers can insert ultrasound images, videos, education website links, and append additional literature. Read or Listen.

Author: NYSORA
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Organization of the peripheral nervous system
Neurons
Schwann cells
Classification of nerve fibers
Myelinated nerve fibers
Unmyelinated nerve fibers
Connective tissue investments of peripheral nerves
Epineurium
Perineurium
Endoneurium
The central-peripheral transition region
Vascular supply of peripheral nerves
Age-related changes in peripheral nerves
Response of peripheral nerves to injury
Anatomy of Peripheral Nerves
Connective Tissue
Communication Between the Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous Systems
Spinal Nerves
Dermatomes, Myotomes, and Osteotomes
Thoracic and Abdominal Wall
Nerve Plexuses
The Cervical Plexus
The Brachial Plexus
The Lumbar Plexus
The Sacral Plexus
Innervation of the Major Joints
Shoulder Joint
Elbow Joint
Hip Joint
Knee Joint
Wrist and Hand
Ankle and Foot
Autonomic Component of Spinal Nerves
Suggested Readings
Nerve Conduction
Mechanism of Action of Local Anesthetics
Structure-Related Clinical Properties of Local Anesthetics
Pharmacological Properties of Local Anesthetics
Site of Injection
Nerve Factors: Anatomical Characteristics of Nerve Fibers
Differential Sensitivity of Nerve Fibers to Local Anesthetics
Types of Local Anesthetics
Ester-Linked Local Anesthetics
2-Chloroprocaine
Cocaine
Procaine
Tetracaine
Amide-Linked Local Anesthetics
Lidocaine
Mepivacaine
Prilocaine
Bupivacaine
Levobupivacaine
Ropivacaine
Additives to Local Anesthetics
Vasoconstrictors
Opioids
Clonidine
Dexmedetomidine
Dexamethasone
Other Adjuvants
Selecting Local Anesthetics for Peripheral Nerve Blocks
Mixing Local Anesthetics
Extended-Release Formulations of Local Anesthetics
Suggested Reading
Multimodal Analgesia
Acetaminophen
NSAIDs
Anticonvulsants
NMDA-Receptor Antagonists
Steroids
Opioids With Dual Action
Regional Anesthesia
Summary
References
Induction and Block Room
Cardiovascular and Respiratory Monitoring During Application of Regional Anesthesia
Regional Anesthesia Equipment Storage Cart
Peripheral Nerve Block Trays
Nerve Block Needles
Needle Gauge
“Echogenic” Needles and Tip Tracking Systems
Ultrasound Machines
Sterility
Transducer Covers and Gel
Injection Pressure Monitoring
Continuous Nerve Catheters
Securing Perineural Catheters
Infusion Pumps
Nerve Stimulators
Triple monitoring
Suggested Readings
Infection prevention in regional anesthesia
Recommendations for infection control practice during LRA procedures
Semi-critical procedures including ultrasound-guided vascular access and Regional Anesthesia (RA)
Practically implementable hygienic recommendations for ultrasound-guided RA and vascular access procedures
Suggested reading
Basics of Electrical Peripheral Nerve Stimulation
Ohm’s Law
Impedance and Constant-Current Source
Coulomb’s Law, Electric Field, and Current Density
How Nerve Stimulation Works
Threshold Level, Rheobase, and Chronaxie
Needle-to-Nerve Distance
The Role of Nerve Stimulation in Conjunction with Ultrasound-Guided Nerve Blocks
Limitations of Peripheral Nerve Stimulation
Nerve Stimulation and Interference with Pacemakers and Defibrillators
Stimulating Needles
Clinical Use of Peripheral Nerve Stimulation
Basic Settings and Implications
Electrode Localization
Using Peripheral Nerve Stimulation as a Localization Tool Without Ultrasound Guidance ADD IMAGES
Troubleshooting
Suggested Readings
Appendix: Glossary of Physical Parameters
Ultrasound Machine Settings
Ultrasound Artifacts
Needle Insertion Techniques
Catheter Visualization
New Needle Tracking Technology
Transducer Maneuvers
Suggested Readings
Introduction
Upper Extremity Blocks
Lower Extremity Blocks
Thoracic and Abdominal Wall Blocks
Perioperative Management Protocols
Suggested Readings
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